The Shape of Enrichment

A source of ideas for animal enrichment

May 3, 2016
by Karen Worley
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Fire Hose Hearts

By Luke Siberry, UK

Cover photoWhether intentional or not, many enrichment items have more than one benefit. They benefit the animals that they are designed for, promoting naturalistic behaviours, reducing stereotypies and increasing wellbeing. Furthermore, they enrich the experience of visitors, allowing for the general public to see these naturalistic behaviours and watch animals interact with their environments in a positive way.

This is the purpose of this piece of enrichment. It allows the public to share a celebration, in this case Valentine’s day, with their most beloved animals. This heart also represents a novel shape to be chewed, swung from or simply sat on by the animals. This experience can always be heightened with the addition of scent or food items. It is particularly easy to push leaf matter between the woven firehose. The fire hose heart will also last a long time, so even if they are only used one day a year, you only have to make these once and then store them until the next Valentine’s day!

Figure 1Equipment and Materials

You will need:

  • Good heavy duty scissors or a serrated knife
  • Power drill
  • 10mm drill bit
  • Socket wrench with 10mm socket
  • 10mm spanner
  • 7 pairs of M6 25mm nuts and bolts
  • 14 Penny washers
  • Tape measure
  • Marker pen
  • Notebook and pen
  • Fire hose

Step 1: Measuring and Cutting

Figure 2To create the heart shape you will need 7 lengths of firehose. You will need to pre-cut these according to the size of the heart you want to make. So it is important that you take the time to estimate how much hose you will need for each length. The most important measurement used to estimate these lengths is the width of your fire hose (Fig. 2). This measurement is important as each length of firehose has to pass over the others across their lengths. It is important that you follow these formula when cutting your lengths:

  • 2 short lengths = (6 x the width) + 15cm
  • 4 medium lengths = (8 x the width) + 15cm
  • 1 long length = (12 x the width) + 15cm

Figure 3The extra 15cm that I have added to every length allows for the weave of the firehose and 2.5cm at each end which will be where the firehose overlaps when bolted. You may find that you have thicker firehose than I am using. In this case add a little extra length to your calculation. It is better that the shape is too loose rather than too tight, as you can always trim off any extra. This is also why I suggest you use a notebook, record your measurements and find the measurements that work best for you. From Fig. 2 we can see that my hose was 10cm wide which means my measurements were as follows:

  • 2 short lengths = (6 x 10) + 15cm = 75cm
  • 4 medium lengths = (8 x 10) + 15cm = 95cm
  • 1 long length = (12 x 10) + 15cm = 135cm

Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Once you have your measurements you’re ready to measure and cut your firehose (Fig. 3). Once you have cut your lengths you will need to drill holes at each end so that you can bolt them together. This is where the 2.5cm that I added to each end of the measurements is important. Using a tape measure mark a point on the ends of each piece of firehose that is in the middle but also at least 2cm from the edge, as shown in Fig. 4. When drilling these holes, it is important that you have something safe to drill into underneath your firehose, I use an old wooden stump. It is also very important that the holes on each end of each length are lined up. To do this drill the first hole and then fold that length in half so that the ends are on top of each other (Fig. 5). Once you have lined up the ends drill a hole into the other end in line with the first. Doing this will ensure that even if you drill the first hole off centre at least both holes will still overlap when looped. Once you have drilled holes in the ends of all 7 lengths of firehose it is time to bolt them together. Use the socket wrench and spanner to tighten the nuts and bolts together and do not forget to place a washer on both sides of the fire hose. This will stop the bolt falling through if the hole is too big, but also will allow you to easily unbolt these lengths if needed. You should bolt the small and medium lengths, leave the longest length as we will be weaving this through all of the other loops later.

Step 2: Weaving the Hose

Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Weaving the firehose in loops should make this build a little easier than trying to bolt the lengths after weaving. To start we need to take the medium lengths and build our heart from the bottom up. When weaving firehose remember that each length of firehose should follow a pattern of over, under, over, under etc. As you weave the loops into each other try and hide the bolts. Hiding the bolts now will be easier than trying to do this later. Fig 7a and 7b show how bolts can be hidden as we weave the loops. All 4 of the medium loops should be woven in the way shown in Fig 7. As you can see the heart shape is coming together. To weave the loops we have to alternate between tucking a loop through one loop and around the next. I have included a side view in Fig 8 to help visualise this. The loop is woven around one loop and then tucked through the next, hiding the bolt in the process. The next step is to take the small lengths and weave these in the same way as the medium lengths but this time we are only weaving them through two loops to create the shape in Fig. 9.

Figure 10Figure 11Hopefully this has been easy so far. At this stage the loops can fall out of place, however they are not difficult to put back. The next step is to weave the long length through the outside of this shape. Fig. 10 shows the process of weaving over and under the outside of the heart. At this point you may find that you have too much hose, and you may want to trim a little off and drill a new hole (Fig. 11a). Once your holes are lined up you need to use the final nut and bolt (don’t forget the washers) to secure the final length (Fig. 11b). Work the final length around your heart so that you can hide that final bolt and you’re done!

Figure 13Figure 12An Optional Extra

Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16At the moment your firehose heart would be perfect as a chew toy to be left in an enclosure. However, there is an alternative, with a length of rope and some splicingknowledge you could hang this in an enclosure. The best way to hang the heart is a simple loop threaded through the woven firehose. Insert the end of yourrope through the top of the heart (Fig.14a), then, depending on how tight you have made your heart insert your hand and pull this rope through and out of the heart (fig 14b,14c). Now this is where the ability to splice comes in handy. I am not going to go into how to splice in this guide, however there are plenty of guides on the internet. We are splicing the rope back on itself which will create an eye slice with part of our heart trapped within it (Fig. 15a, 15b). The length of rope that you should be unwinding to splice back onto itself depends on your target animal, the bigger the animal the more rope you need to splice onto itself. Finally, you are ready to hang it in an enclosure!

May 1, 2016
by Karen Worley
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Trying Different Enrichments for Coatis in Different Zoos: What Can We Expect?

By Caroline Marques Maia and Eliana Ferraz Santos, Laboratory of Physiology and Behavior, São Paulo State University; Bosque dos Jequitibás Zoo; São Paulo, Brazil

Coati_Edu FortesCoatis Bosque dos Jequitibás zoo in Campinas and Municipal Ecological Park Armando Muller in Paulínia have each housed three coatis (Nasua nasua): three related females (mother, daughter, and niece) in Campinas that were born there, and two females and one castrated male in Paulínia, which came from the non-governmental organization Associação Mata Ciliar, in Jundiaí, Brazil. In Campinas, the enclosure was larger (200 m²) and not fenced (Figure 1, below right). The substrate was dirt and the coatis were fed only once a day in the morning. On the other hand, in Paulínia, the enclosure was smaller (64 m2), surrounded and covered by wire mesh, and the soil was covered by vegetation (Figure 2, below left). Moreover, the animals were fed in the morning and also in the evening.

Coati enclosure_Julia Talazzo de CamposCoati enclosure 2_Julia Talazzo de CamposAlthough the most frequent behaviors of these coatis in both zoos were sleeping and moving on the ground (21% and 33% in Campinas and 47% and 22% in Paulínia, respectively), the coatis of Paulínia Zoo slept significantly more than in Campinas Zoo (Goodman’s proportion test, P<0.05). Moreover, a female in Campinas Zoo exhibited pacing, while the male in Paulínia Zoo exhibited excessive territory marking, both considered stereotypic behaviors. Thus, we tested whether enrichment could improve the conditions of these coatis, especially in Paulínia Zoo.

We recorded the behaviors of the coatis before and during the implementation of the enrichment, using the scan sampling technique at fixed intervals of 10 min, thus obtaining the frequency of the behaviors for the coatis’ group in each zoo. We recorded the following behaviors: feed; move on the ground; move on the trunks/fence; remain stationary on the ground; remain stationary on the trunks/fence; interaction with other coatis or objects; dig; grooming/scratching; sleep; or stay out of view (in shelters or in chambers). The enrichment was always applied in the morning.

The enrichment offered were live insect larvae (tenebrio); fresh strawberries; frozen fruit; ox heart; basil branches; ox leather in the shape of a bone (purchased at pet shop); toy made of PVC pipe with small holes and containing basil; long ropes of sisal with pine cones tied at the end; curtains made of sisal ropes; two attractive scents (Canine Call and Pro’s Choice); and sandbox with earthworms and millipedes. These last two enrichments were not used in Paulínia, as they were not allowed by the zoo institution or were difficult to transport. The behavioral data were compared between periods with and without the enrichment for each zoo, and also between the zoos by Goodman’s proportion test (P<0.05 for statistical significance).

There was no significant effect of the enrichment on the proportional frequencies of the behaviors previously observed within each zoo (Goodman’s proportion test, P>0.05). However, the animals interacted with the enrichment in different ways, depending on the zoo, and some new behaviors appeared with the implementation of some specific items. The initial enrichment with tenebrio larvae did not attract the coatis of Campinas Zoo. Instead, these larvae were then offered freely on the ground in the enclosure, leading these coatis to consume them and dig in places where some of the larvae had been buried. In Paulínia Zoo, the coatis rubbed the flour culture the larvae were in on themselves, but few of the larvae were consumed. The pieces of ox heart were eaten only in Campinas Zoo, and just a few strawberries were consumed in both zoos. Regarding frozen fruit enrichment, when the ice melted, papaya and banana were consumed in Campinas. In Paulínia, few fruits were consumed, but the coatis scraped their nails in the ice and the male rubbed in the melted water and ice. All earthworms and millipedes were consumed in the morning in Campinas Zoo, but not in Paulínia.

Coati w log_Daniele Victoratti do CarmoCoatis from both zoos interacted with the sisal curtain, the hanging pinecones, and PVC pipe with basil. In Paulínia, the curtain was tied to the ceiling fence of the enclosure, so the coatis were able to hang on it and move around on it, a behavior not previously observed. In Campinas Zoo, just one female kept one ox leather bone, gnawing it periodically, while in Paulínia Zoo all the ox leather bones were gnawed throughout the day. In addition, coatis rubbed the earth moistened with scents and the basil on their bodies. In both zoos, these last two enrichments resulted in behaviors not previously observed: marking while sitting and salivation in excess.

When comparing the data between the zoos, the significant difference initially observed in relation to the sleeping behavior disappeared with the enrichment (Goodman’s proportion test, P>0.05).

The fact that Campinas’ coatis received food just once a day in the morning may explain why the food enrichment was better used than in Paulínia Zoo. Although the enrichment did not affect the frequency of any behavior observed before their implementation, some of them resulted in new behaviors, thus increasing the behavioral repertoire. These results demonstrate that the sisal curtain positioned in a way that enables the animals to hang on it, as well as enrichments involving scents and basil may be successful for captive coatis. Because Paulínia’s coatis initially slept significantly more than in Campinas Zoo, a difference eliminated by the enrichment, the conditions of the coatis in Paulínia was probably more affected and improved after the implementation of the enrichment. However, as stereotyped behaviors were not affected in either of the zoos, more specific enrichment should be tried to eliminate or at least reduce the frequency of these behaviors.

Photo credits: top left, Edu Fortes; bottom left, Daniele Victoratti do Carmo; right top and bottom, Julia Talazzo de Campos 

May 17, 2015
by Karen Worley
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Mapping How Grizzly Bears Use Their Enclosure

By Beth Cinadr, Educational Animal Assistant, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio, USA

Cleveland Metroparks Zoo is AZA accredited and very involved in enrichment programs. Enrichment is a dynamic process for enhancing animal environments within the context of the animals’ behavioral biology and natural history (Association of Zoos & Aquariums, 2012). Environmental enrichment can be defined as an animal husbandry principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive care by identifying and providing environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological well-being (Shepherdson, 1998). Our zoo categorizes enrichment into seven types: foraging, self-maintenance, sensual, structural and locomotion, diet, intelligence, and environmental (Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 2006).

B - 4 bears

Grizzly Bears and Enrichment

The goal of our study was to determine, using a mapping technique, how the grizzlies at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo interact with all areas of their enclosure. Any enrichment program hopes to get a positive response from the animals while promoting investigation and typical behaviors (Young, 2003). The key behaviors that we seek to encourage in the bears are: rubbing, olfactory, nesting, and foraging. The four grizzlies in this study—two brothers, Cooper and Cody, and a brother and sister, Jackson and Cheyenne, all about two years old (the males are neutered)—have an enrichment plan in place to help achieve these behavior goals. By conducting this mapping study, we wanted to see if the bears were displaying these behaviors within all locations, and with the enrichment items provided, from which we could determine that the enclosure is creating a stimulating atmosphere for these bears to live in.

Mapping to Understand Enclosure Use

Creating a map to gather behavioral data offers organization and an overview of the subject, a projection of reality. Maps can bring to light complex environmental needs, knowledge, and uses, and mapping has the power to name, define, locate, and situate (Rochleau, 2009). Chambers discusses mobility mapping, which allows one to see who goes where and how often. Mobility mapping can come in handy especially when concerning the welfare of animals. Maps promote living in an age where there is a sense, and perhaps a reality, of accelerating change (Chambers, 2006). Mapping offers a positive movement for change when needed.

Methods

Using an overhead photograph of the enclosure from Google Maps, we created a map of the grizzly bears’ enclosure by dividing the area into eight sections, based on size and enclosure features (see Figure 1).
The enclosure features were also labeled on the map to further illustrate what the grizzlies’ can interact with. A large downed tree trunk was the middle point to separate top and bottom rows. It is about 20 B - Figure 1feet long and is found in zones 3 and 5. The first seven zones are land and the eighth includes a waterfall and pool.

The study recorded each bear’s location in the exhibit and behavior at 5-minute intervals over the course of 30 minutes. These observation sets were done for a total of four days. These location points were used to calculate which exhibit sections the bears spend most of their time in.

Figure 1. Zones of the Grizzly Bear Habitat at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Overhead view.

Results

Each of the data points were totaled and calculated to create percentages of time spent in each zone. This gave a great overall picture of how the grizzlies were exploring their habitat (Figure 2). The grizzlies spent the most time in Zone 2. This zone was where they were found sleeping as well, so this might account for that result. The bears spent a greater amount of time in the front row of zones, closest to the visitors (Zones 2, 4, 6). Perhaps due to the oncoming colder weather, the bears did not come into contact with the water features except for a quick drink. These bears were very active, not only with features of the enclosure but each other as well. The grizzly bears frequently interacted with enrichment items in their enclosure.

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Figure 2. Pie chart displaying zone totals for the four grizzly bears over the observational time period.

Discussion

The aim of this study was to determine how the four grizzly bears at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo interact with their enclosure, enrichment items, and each other. It was found that the four grizzly bears are active in all locations and with many items that are in the enclosure. The location map will also help the caretakers track the bears going forward. If location percentages change, there might be a reason that the keepers can address. Keepers can keep the enclosure interactive by placing new
enrichment items in areas where the bears could be spending more time. Since this study showed that the bears spend time pretty equally in all areas of the enclosure, it lets the keepers know they have thoroughly enriched this enclosure in a way that is stimulating to them.B - bears with enrichment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grizzly bears interacting with various items. From top left, clockwise: plastic ball (6), rubber tire (4), Herring fish (6), piece of tree bark (2). Photos by Cleveland Metroparks Zoo.

Zoo visitors also seemed to benefit from the bear enrichment. During observations, when enrichment items were visible in the enclosure, the visitors would voice that the bears are “playing” or “having a good time.” These observations support that enrichment programs are beneficial to both animals and visitors. Quality enrichment programs provide the animals with interactive/stimulating experiences while educating and entertaining zoo visitors.

Creating maps such as the ones used in this study can be helpful in documenting animal activity and changes in behavior according to location in the exhibit. There was a similar study done on gray wolf behavior in small and large enclosures. The study tested to see whether space restrictions alter a wolf’s behavior. The researchers found there was no difference in activity levels based on size of enclosures (Kreeger et. al, 1998). Maps can also aid in helping visitors learn about where the animals can be seen in their enclosures.

Conclusion

As a keeper, the goal is to create an interactive and natural enclosure for the animals. Enclosures should optimize the area for maximum usage and interaction. Keeping detailed maps such as this will help keepers assess their animal’s welfare and their use of enrichment to improve the animals’ behaviors on and off exhibit.

References

Association of Zoos & Aquariums. (2012). Accreditation Standards and Related Policies; Silver Springs.
Chambers, R. (2006). Participatory mapping and geographic information systems: Whose map? Who is empowered and who dis-empowered? Who gains and who loses? The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 25, 1-11.
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. (2006). Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Animal Environmental Enrichment Policy; Cleveland.
Kreeger, T. J., Pereira, D. L., Callahan, M. and Beckel, M. (1996), Activity patterns of gray wolves housed in small vs. large enclosures. Zoo Biol., 15: 395–401.
Rocheleau, D. (2005). Maps as power tools: Locating communities in space or situating people and ecologies in place? From Brosius, J.P., Tsing, A.L. and Zerner, C. (eds.), Communities and Conservation. New York, NY: Altamira Press. Chapter 13, pp. 327-362.
Shepherdson, D.J., Mellen, J.D., Hutchins, M. (1998). Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals; Smithsonian Institution Press, London.
Young, R.J. (2003). Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals; Blackwell Science Ltd., O.

 

April 6, 2015
by shapeadmin
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Welcome to the New Shape of Enrichment Publication!

The Shape of Enrichment is moving to a new blog format for its publication. Rather than creating a newsletter in printed and PDF format that is distributed a few times a year, we will now be publishing articles about enrichment through this blog, and each article will be posted as soon as it has been edited and reviewed. In this way, we hope to provide content to our subscribers more frequently and in a quicker and easier format that can be accessed on any device wherever you are!

To access The Shape of Enrichment, you will need to register on our website, enrichment.org, and order a subscription to this online blog. You can purchase the subscription online with a credit card or by sending a check, but you must be a registered user. You will then be notified each time there is a new post. Only subscribers will have access to the blog publication. In addition, subscribers will have access to subscriber-only sections of our website and the Enrichment Idea Database, a collection of vetted enrichment ideas that is searchable by taxa, species, type of enrichment, and other options.

We are accepting article submissions for this blog from anyone involved in enrichment: keepers, curators, aquarists, enrichment coordinators, animal behaviorists, researchers, caretakers in domestic situations, and more. If you have an enrichment idea that has worked well – or one that you like but still need to improve upon – please submit it to us at shape@enrichment.org so it can be shared with the animal enrichment and welfare community!